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IES MASTER BUILDING MATERIAL

IES MASTER BUILDING MATERIAL

 GATE ,PSU , IES  – STUDY MATERIAL

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IES MASTER BUILDING MATERIAL-STUDY MATERIAL

ABOUT THE BOOK

  • SUBJECT :  BUILDING MATERIL
  • PUBLISHERS: IES MASTER INSTITUTE FOR ENGINNERING
  • USEFUL FOR: GATE,IES &PSU OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
  • AUTHORS: SUBJECT ExPERT OF IES MASTER INSTITUTE FOR ENGINNERING

CONTENTS

  • CEMENT
  • CONCRETE
  • TIMBER
  • BRICK
  • BRICK MASONRY
  • AGGREGATEETYDTMDYM
  • WATER

CEMENT   :-   

  • cement is a material which has cohesise and adhesive properties in presence of water.                                  cohesive-intermolecular attraction between same molecule.
  • cement is the  product obtained by the pulverizing clincker formed by row material primarly consists of lime (CaO),Alumina(Al2O3) and iron oxide(Fe2O3) .                                                                  pulverizing - make into a power by bracking                                                                                clincker-a hard brick used as paving stone.   
  • cement was invented by Joseph Aspdin of UK in 1824.   
  • cement can be formed by either from natural cement stone or artificial but generally formed by artificially.                                                                                                                                                      artificially cement manufacture by two material                                                                              1.)Argillaceous material -shale and clay, cement rock, Blast furnace slag .                                    2.)Calcareous material -Lime stone, chalk 
  • exmple of natural cement :-                                                                                                                               Roman cement, Puzzolona cement and madina cement.
  • exmple of artificial cement :-                                                                                                                            Portalnd cement.   

properties of cement

  • It gives strength to the masonary.
  • It is an excellent binding material.
  • It is easily workable.
  • It offers good resistance to the moisture.
  • It posses good plasticity.
  • It stiffens or hardness early.

   

Chemical composition of cement:-

Lime (CaO)60 to 67%
Silica (SiO2)17 to 25%
Alumina (Al2O3)3 to 8%
Iron oxide (Fe2O3)0.5 to 6%
Magnesia (MgO)0.1 to 4%
Sulphur trioxide (SO3)1 to 3%
Soda and/or Potash (Na2O+K2O)0.5 to 1.3%

Functions of Cement Ingredients

The main features of these cement ingredients along with their functions and usefulness or harmfulness are given below:
  1. LimeLime is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide.
    • Presence of lime in a sufficient quantity is required to form silicates and aluminates of calcium.
    • Deficiency in lime reduces the strength of property to the cement.
    • Deficiency in lime causes cement to set quickly.
    • Excess lime makes cement unsound.
    • Excessive presence of lime cause cement to expand and disintegrate
  1. Magnesia: Magnesium Oxide. Chemical formula is MgO.
    • Magnesia should not be present more than 2% in cement.
    • Excess magnesia will reduce the strength of the cement.
  2. Iron oxide: Chemical formula is Fe2O3.
    • Iron oxide imparts color to cement.
    • It acts as a flux.
    • At a very high temperature, it imparts into the chemical reaction with calcium and aluminum to form tricalcium alumino-ferrite.
    • Tricalcium alumino-ferrite imparts hardness and strength to cement.
  3. Calcium Sulfate: Chemical formula is CaSO4
    .
    • This is present in cement in the form of gypsum(CaSO4.2H2O)
    • It slows down or retards the setting action of cement.
  4. Sulfur Trioxide: Chemical formula is SO3
    .
    • Should not be present more than 2%.
    • Excess Sulfur Trioxide causes cement to unsound.
  5. Alkaline
    • Should not be present more than 1%.
    • Excess Alkaline matter causes efflorescence.

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